Susceptibility to hepatitis B infection, hepatitis B/HIV co-infections and hepatitis B immunity in HIV-positive patients starting HAART in Durban, South Africa
Background: HIV/HBV co-infection remains a global threat to HIV management despite the available effective hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B covering antiretroviral therapy. Many studies done in South Africa and internationally showed high prevalence of HIV/hepatitis B co-infection, which mandated routine screening for both infections before initiating HAART. Fewer studies have highlighted the prevalence of hepatitis B susceptibility in the general population starting HAART and most of them were limited to children and high-risk groups. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the extent of hepatitis B susceptibility, hepatitis B/HIV co-infections and hepatitis B immunity in general HIV-infected patients.
Method: This was a retrospective review of 1 066 randomly sampled files of patients initiated on HAART between January 2012 and December 2014 at two Durban hospitals. Data collection included demographic characteristic, CD4 counts and hepatitis B serology. Data were analysed for the prevalence of hepatitis B susceptibility, HIV/HBV co-infection and hepatitis B immunity, while correlations between age, CD4 count and these three groups were demonstrated. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 9.3.
Results: Total prevalence of HBV susceptibility was 69.7%, HBV immunity was 26.9% and true chronic HIV/HBV co-infection was 3.4%, while HBVsAg positivity accounted for 8.4% of the participants. Adults were more susceptible to HBV than children, with a median age of 36 years. Stratified for age, children were more immune (90%) to HBV than adults.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated a significantly high number of HIV-infected persons who were susceptible to hepatitis B infection in Durban, South Africa, where both HIV and HBV are endemic, co-infection is high, and safe and effective HBV vaccine is available. Hepatitis B vaccination of the hepatitis B susceptible patients initiating HAART in South Africa is recommended to prevent further HIV/HBV co-infection.
Full text of the research articles are available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/20786190.2018.1518023