Review Articles

The medical management of glaucoma

André Marais, Elzbieta Osuch
South African Family Practice | Vol 59, No 2 : March/April| a4669 | DOI: | ©
Submitted: 15 March 2017 | Published:

About the author(s)

André Marais, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Elzbieta Osuch, Sefako Makghato Health Sciences University, South Africa

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Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. The main characteristic features include optic disc cupping, visual field loss, and in most instances a raised intraocular pressure. Primary open angle glaucoma accounts for nearly two thirds of all cases, while angle closure glaucoma contributes the majority of the remainder. Screening for glaucoma is not cost-effective, and diagnosis of the primary open angle type is usually an incidental finding during ophthalmological examination. Various treatment options, including medical and surgical interventions are accessible in the management of glaucoma. This article contains a brief description on the pathophysiology and focuses on the pharmacological options available in the treatment of glaucoma.


Glaucoma; prostaglandin analogs; carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; beta antagonists, alpha 2 adrenergic agonists; cholinergic agonists


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