Review Articles

Urinary tract infections in children

Elzbieta Osuch, Andre Marais
South African Family Practice | Vol 60, No 1 : January/February| a4782 | DOI: | ©
Submitted: 20 November 2017 | Published: 18 January 2018

About the author(s)

Elzbieta Osuch, Sefako Makghato Health Sciences University, South Africa
Andre Marais,, South Africa

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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in childhood and represent approximately 10% of hospital-acquired infections. It is clinically challenging to distinguish cystitis (lower UTI) from pyelonephritis (upper UTI) in those younger than two years. Most UTI patients can however be safely managed as outpatients if diligent follow-up procedures are in place. Recurrent UTIs in children may indicate malfunction or an anatomical defect of the urinary tract, and require specialised diagnostic studies. The proper approach for a child with UTI remains controversial, and treatment often differs according to regional or institutional empirical guidelines.


Urinary tract infection; children; cystitis; pyelonephritis; antibiotics


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