Review Articles

Underlying causes of chronic bladder dysfunction

Andre Marais, Elzbieta Osuch
South African Family Practice | Vol 60, No 2 : March/April| a4828 | DOI: | © 2019 | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 28 February 2018 | Published: 07 June 2018

About the author(s)

Andre Marais, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Elzbieta Osuch, Sefako Makghato Health Sciences University, South Africa

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General practitioners and family physicians frequently encounter patients suffering from voiding disorders. Various underlying causes such as spinal cord injury, cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain injury and several neurological diseases including Parkinson’s disease, dementia, multiple sclerosis and vitamin deficiencies have been implicated. Chronic bladder conditions may cause social embarrassment and decrease quality of life in affected individuals. It is important to identify the most common underlying causes of bladder dysfunction and have adequate knowledge regarding the primary treatment and prevention of complications in order to reduce the economic burden created by this group of disorders.


Chronic bladder conditions; interstitial cystitis; painful bladder syndrome; chronic urinary tract infection; urinary incontinence; hematuria; bladder cancer


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