Review Articles

Burning issues in the prevention of heart failure

J. A. Ker, K. Outhoff
South African Family Practice | Vol 61, No 4 : July/August| a4956 | DOI: | © 2019 J. A. Ker, K. Outhoff | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 28 October 2019 | Published: 04 September 2019

About the author(s)

J. A. Ker, University of Pretoria, South Africa
K. Outhoff, University of Pretoria, South Africa

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Chronic heart failure is common, debilitating, and often the culmination of pervasive cardiovascular insults that systematically undermine the heart’s circulatory capacity and invoke counterproductive neuro-hormonal compensatory changes. Prevention of chronic heart failure therefore requires minimising the impact of traditional cardiovascular risk factors with incisive treatment of hypertension and type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and prompt lifestyle interventions for smoking, lack of exercise, obesity and hypercholesterolemia. This review is narrative, with selected emphasis on major studies, rather than structured on a specific clinical question, and should be read as such.


Chronic heart failure; prevention; cardio-protection; hypertension; type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


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