Research Articles

Susceptibility to hepatitis B infection, hepatitis B/HIV co-infections and hepatitis B immunity in HIV-positive patients starting HAART in Durban, South Africa

F. M. Chonco, S. Rangiah
South African Family Practice | Vol 61, No 2 : March/April| a5004 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/safp.v61i2.5004 | © 2019 F. M. Chonco, S. Rangiah | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 28 October 2019 | Published: 29 April 2019

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F. M. Chonco, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
S. Rangiah, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

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Abstract

Background: HIV/HBV co-infection remains a global threat to HIV management despite the available effective hepatitis B vaccine and hepatitis B covering antiretroviral therapy. Many studies done in South Africa and internationally showed high prevalence of HIV/hepatitis B co-infection, which mandated routine screening for both infections before initiating HAART. Fewer studies have highlighted the prevalence of hepatitis B susceptibility in the general population starting HAART and most of them were limited to children and high-risk groups. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the extent of hepatitis B susceptibility, hepatitis B/HIV co-infections and hepatitis B immunity in general HIV-infected patients.
Method: This was a retrospective review of 1 066 randomly sampled files of patients initiated on HAART between January 2012 and December 2014 at two Durban hospitals. Data collection included demographic characteristic, CD4 counts and hepatitis B serology. Data were analysed for the prevalence of hepatitis B susceptibility, HIV/HBV co-infection and hepatitis B immunity, while correlations between age, CD4 count and these three groups were demonstrated. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS version 9.3.
Results: Total prevalence of HBV susceptibility was 69.7%, HBV immunity was 26.9% and true chronic HIV/HBV co-infection was 3.4%, while HBVsAg positivity accounted for 8.4% of the participants. Adults were more susceptible to HBV than children, with a median age of 36 years. Stratified for age, children were more immune (90%) to HBV than adults.
Conclusion: This study demonstrated a significantly high number of HIV-infected persons who were susceptible to hepatitis B infection in Durban, South Africa, where both HIV and HBV are endemic, co-infection is high, and safe and effective HBV vaccine is available. Hepatitis B vaccination of the hepatitis B susceptible patients initiating HAART in South Africa is recommended to prevent further HIV/HBV co-infection.


Keywords

hepatitis B susceptibility; hepatitis B immunity; hepatitis B/ HIV co-infection; hepatitis B vaccination; HIV

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