Review Articles

Burning issues in acute heart failure management

J. A. Ker, K. Outhoff
South African Family Practice | Vol 61, No 6 : November/December| a5063 | DOI: | © 2019 J. A. Ker, K. Outhoff | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 11 December 2019 | Published: 09 December 2019

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J. A. Ker, University of Pretoria, South Africa
K. Outhoff, University of Pretoria, South Africa

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In general, heart failure is the end-stage manifestation of cardiovascular disease and is an important and increasing cause of morbidity worldwide. Acute heart failure, whether of new onset or an exacerbation of chronic heart failure, causes sudden congestion, typically presenting as pulmonary oedema. The mortality associated with acute heart failure is extremely high. Potentially life-saving treatments and other burning issues are highlighted in this review.


Acute heart failure; pulmonary oedema; N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP); loop diuretics; ivabradine; angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI)


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