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Secondary hypertension: An update on the diagnosis and localisation of a pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma

Nida Siddiqui, Reyna Daya, Faheem Seedat, Saajidah Bulbulia, Zaheer Bayat
South African Family Practice | Vol 63, No 1 : Part 3| a5277 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/safp.v63i1.5277 | © 2021 Nida Siddiqui, Reyna Daya, Faheem Seedat, Saajidah Bulbulia, Zaheer Bayat | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 08 February 2021 | Published: 14 July 2021

About the author(s)

Nida Siddiqui, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Health Sciences, Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa
Reyna Daya, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Health Sciences, Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa
Faheem Seedat, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Health Sciences, Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa
Saajidah Bulbulia, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Health Sciences, Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa
Zaheer Bayat, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Health Sciences, Helen Joseph Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa


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Abstract

Most cases of hypertension are because of essential hypertension, however 5% – 15% of cases can be a result of a secondary cause. In this article, we focus on the endocrine causes of secondary hypertension with a particular focus on pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs). Around 15 endocrine disorders can initially present with hypertension. Amongst those PCCs and PGLs are rare but potentially life-threatening causes. An early diagnosis and timely referral can be life-saving. Herein, we present an approach for screening and diagnosis of these patients and focus on the importance of genetic testing.

Keywords

secondary hypertension; endocrine; pheochromocytoma; paraganglioma; screening; normetanephrines; metanephrines; succinate dehydrogenase

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