Original Research

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in central South Africa

William Mhundwa, Gina Joubert, Thabiso R.P. Mofokeng
South African Family Practice | Vol 65, No 1 : Part 2| a5663 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/safp.v65i1.5663 | © 2023 William Mhundwa, Gina Joubert, Thabiso R.P. Mofokeng | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 15 November 2022 | Published: 29 May 2023

About the author(s)

William Mhundwa, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Gina Joubert, Department of Biostatistics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa
Thabiso R.P. Mofokeng, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

Abstract

Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of CKD among T2DM patients in Africa is 22.0%. The cut-off age for dialysing diabetic patients in the resource-limited state sector in South Africa is 50 years. Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients who develop CKD are likely to be excluded from chronic dialysis and rely on control of risk factors, including blood pressure and blood glucose levels, to prevent CKD progression. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CKD among T2DM patients attending the diabetes clinic at Pelonomi Academic Hospital, Bloemfontein.

Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, medical records of patients (January 2016 and December 2018) were reviewed to collect demographic and clinical information.

Results: In total, 244 records were reviewed. Sixty-one (25.0%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 20% – 30.8%) T2DM patients had CKD. The rate of CKD was slightly higher in males (n = 24/81; 29.6%) compared with females (n = 37/163; 22.7%). Most patients with CKD (n = 58; 95.1%) were > 50 years of age. Only 17.8% of patients achieved a glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) of < 7.0%. Blood pressure was controlled in 14.3% of hypertensive patients. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors were used by 78.6% of patients.

Conclusion: A high prevalence of clinically significant CKD among T2DM patients with poor prospects of chronic dialysis in a resource-limited setting was observed. The risk factors for CKD development and progression should be adequately managed in T2DM patients.

Contribution: This study emphasises the need for further research and innovation to improve outcomes of T2DM patients with CKD in resource-constrained settings.

 


Keywords

chronic kidney disease; type 2 diabetes mellitus; end-stage renal disease; diabetic kidney disease; risk factors; control; albuminuria; renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

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