Original Research

Cardiac scoring systems, coronary artery disease and major adverse cardiovascular events: A scoping review

Preesha Premsagar, Colleen Aldous, Tonya Esterhuizen
South African Family Practice | Vol 65, No 1 : Part 3| a5683 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/safp.v65i1.5683 | © 2023 Preesha Premsagar, Colleen Aldous, Tonya Esterhuizen | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 22 November 2022 | Published: 10 August 2023

About the author(s)

Preesha Premsagar, Department of Internal Medicine, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Colleen Aldous, Department of Clinical Medicine, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa
Tonya Esterhuizen, Division of Epidemiology/Biostatistics, Department of Global Health, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa

Abstract

Background: In 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared coronary artery disease (CAD) as the leading cause of death globally for the last 20 years. Early screening and detection (primary prevention) and intervention (secondary prevention) are necessary to curb CAD and major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) prevalence. A scoping review to assess the current literature on using cardiac scoring systems to predict CAD and MACE was performed.

Methods: The research question ‘What is the literature on using cardiac scoring systems to predict CAD and MACE?’ was addressed. The updated Arksey and O’Malley and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews methodologies were used. The search terms ‘coronary artery disease’ and ‘cardiac scoring systems’ and ‘major adverse cardiovascular events’ were used in the Boolean search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, MedLine and Cochrane Library.

Results: The final list consisted of 19 published English results after the year 2000. There were six results without participants (four clinical guidelines, one review article and one ongoing clinical trial). Scoring systems were cardiovascular risk estimation systems focusing on the primary prevention of CAD; MACE was discussed but not scored. There were 13 robust results published from completed multinational clinical trials with participants. These results focused on a scoring system for the secondary prevention of CAD and MACE.

Conclusion: Scoring systems remain an objective method for primary and secondary prevention of CAD and MACE.

Contribution: Scoring systems may be helpful with clinical uncertainty or to standardise patient results for comparison in research.


Keywords

scoping review; coronary artery disease CAD; cardiac scoring systems; major adverse cardiovascular events MACE

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